Cartesianism – is usually understood as deterministic, i.e. about definite answers, deductive logic . Actually Descartes held that all existence consists in three distinct substances, each with its own essence (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cartesianism)
- matter, possessing extension in three dimensions
- mind, possessing self-conscious thought
- God, possessing necessary existence
It was arguably a bold attempt to be coldly rational by divorcing the first of these from our notions of the mental and the spiritual, that the first was divorced from the influence of the mental and the spiritual. It is only a convenient partitioning that limits our perceptions.
Descartes explained, “We cannot doubt of our existence while we doubt.” A fuller form, dubito, ergo cogito, ergo sum (“I doubt, therefore I think, therefore I am”)A non-Cartesian view would be that such things are not distinct, any more than matter and energy is distinct. There is only information, and in the sense that it has meaning, impact on us, actionability and consequences, we mean not a string of bits or the stratum that holds them, but its organization into knowledge and wisdom.)
Insomuch that belief, cause, and probability are all one, this has much to do with the philosophy of the Presbyterian minister Thomas Bayes https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Bayes, which has little to do with the popular Bayes Net, merely a use of conditional probabilities constrained such that lements of reasoning imply a knowledge network that must be a directed acyclic graph.
In modern physics, many hold the view that all three of Descartes distinct substances are human perceptions within the universe as a giant computation device in which what we perceive as the external world, our minds, and the mind we exist within, are the same.
In philosophy, the new wave non-Cartesian was Edward Jonathan Lowe (1950 – 2014), usually cited as E. J. Lowe but known personally as Jonathan Lowe, was a British philosopher and academic. Oxford-trained, he was Professor of Philosophy at Durham University, England. He developed a version of psychophysical dualism that he called non-Cartesian substance dualism.
“It is an interactionist substance dualism. (Cf. John Eccles and early Karl Popper.)… Lowe argued, however,
That events (both mental and physical) should properly not be thought of as causes, because only actors (human or animal agents – or inanimate physical agents) can cause things. Events are more properly simply happenings, some caused, some uncaused. [As] quantum indeterminism states, some are only statistically caused, and so perhaps then uncaused and neither determined nor pre-determined.”(http://www.philosophyonline.co.uk/oldsite/pom/pom_non_cartesian_dualism.htm,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E._J._Lowe_(philosopher).
Our approach based on the mathematics of physics and in particular Paul A. M. Dirac and Albert Einstein’s’ view of space-time as one says
that there is no cause and effect in the specific sense that, in a network of interaction the illusion of non-locality is maintained by the fact that who was the cause of preparing a state and who observed it is not meaningful. Rather, all co-exists in space-time, so that while the Bayes Net (again, little to with Bayes) denies that something can cause something that causes something that causes the original cause, such statements are meaningless, in that all things interact in space and time, and cyclic effects abound in nature as they do in quantum mechanics, and in our reasoning about them..
Our approach additionally includes inductive logic and is combination of number theory, information theory, quantum mechanics and knowledge / extraction Bayesian statistics that have all to do with processing the interactions between things in a larger knowledge picture. Only such a view
- can solve the difficult classes of problems:-
- creates semantic data lake
- can do cyclic Bayesian computations
- can do reasoning and inference to reach a degree of knowledge
- can manage the non-predicated and probabilistic, and discover the possible hypotheses existing and new.