data science

The BioIngine.com Platform Beta Release 1.0 on the Anvil

The BioIngine.com™ 

Ingine; Inc™, The BioIngine.com™, DiracIngine™, MARPLE™ are all Ingine Inc © and Trademark Protected; also The BioIngine.com is Patent Pending IP belonging to Ingine; Inc™.

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High Performance Cloud based Cognitive Computing Platform

The below figure depicts the healthcare analytics challenge as the order of complexity is scaled.

1. Introduction Beta Release 1.0

It is our pleasure to introduce startup venture Ingine; Inc that brings to market The BioIngine.com™Cognitive Computing Platform for the Healthcare market, delivering Medical Automated Reasoning Programming Language Environment (MARPLE) capability based on the mathematics borrowed from several disciplines and notably from late Prof Paul A M Dirac’s Quantum Mechanics.

The BioIngine.com™; is a High Performance Cloud Computing Platformdelivering HealthCare Large-Data Analytics capability derived from an ensemble of bio-statistical computations. The automated bio-statistical reasoning is a combination of “deterministic” and “probabilistic” methods employed against both structured and unstructured large data sets leading into Cognitive Reasoning.

The BioIngine.com™; delivers Medical Automated Reasoning based on a Medical Automated Programming Language Environment (MARPLE) capability, so better achieving 2nd order semantic interoperability1 in the Healthcare ecosystem. (Appendix Notes)

The BioIngine.com™ is a result of several years of efforts with Dr. Barry Robson; former Chief Scientific Officer, IBM Global Healthcare, Pharmaceutical and Life Science. His research has been in developing quantum math driven exchange and inference language achieving semantic interoperability, while also enabling Clinical Decision Support System, that is inherently Evidence Based Medicine (EBM). The solution, besides enabling EBM, also delivers knowledge graphs for Public Health surveys including those sought by epidemiologists. Based on Dr Robson’s experience in the biopharmaceutical industry and pioneering efforts in bioinformatics, this has the data mining driven potential to advance pathways planning from clinical to pharmacogenomics.

The BioIngine.com™; brings the machinery of Quantum Mechanics to Healthcare analytics; delivering a comprehensive data science experience that covers both Patient Health and Population Health (Epidemiology) analytics, driven by a range of bio-statistical methods from descriptive to inferential statistics, leading into evidence driven medical reasoning.

The BioIngine.com™; transforms the large clinical data sets generated by interoperability architectures, such as in Health Information Exchange (HIE) into “semantic lake” representing the Health ecosystem that is more amenable to bio-statistical reasoning and knowledge representation. This capability delivers evidence-based knowledge needed for Clinical Decision Support System, better achieving Clinical Efficacy by helping to reduce medical errors.

The BioIngine.com™; platform working against large clinical data sets or while residing within the large Patient Health Information Exchange (HIE) works in creating opportunity for Clinical Efficacy, while it also facilitates in the better achievement of “Efficiencies in the Healthcare Management” that Accountable Care Organization (ACO) seeks.

Our endeavors have resulted in the development of revolutionary Data Science to deliver Health Knowledge by Probabilistic Inference. The solution developed addresses critical areas in both scientific and technical, notably the healthcare interoperability challenges of delivering semantically relevant knowledge both at patient health (clinical) and public health level (Accountable Care Organization).

2. WhyThe BioIngine.com™?

The basic premise in engineering The BioIngine.com™ is in acknowledging the fact that in solving knowledge extraction from the large data sets (both structured and unstructured), one is confronted by very large data sets riddled by high-dimensionality and uncertainty.

Generally in solving insights from the large data sets the order in complexity is scaled as follows:-

A. Insights around :- “what” 

For large data sets, descriptive statistics are adequate to extract a “what” perspective. Descriptive statistics generally delivers statistical summary of the ecosystem and the probabilistic distribution.

B. Univariate Problem :- “what” 

Considering some simplicity in the variables relationships or is cumulative effects between the independent variables (causing) and the dependent variables (outcomes):-

a) Univariate regression (simple independent variables to dependent variables analysis)

b) Correlation Cluster – shows impact of set of variables or segment analysis.

           https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Correlation_clustering

[From above link:- In machine learningcorrelation clustering or cluster editing operates in a scenario where the relationships between the objects are known instead of the actual representations of the objects. For example, given a weighted graph G = (V,E), where the edge weight indicates whether two nodes are similar (positive edge weight) or different (negative edge weight), the task is to find a clustering that either maximizes agreements (sum of positive edge weights within a cluster plus the absolute value of the sum of negative edge weights between clusters) or minimizes disagreements (absolute value of the sum of negative edge weights within a cluster plus the sum of positive edge weights across clusters). Unlike other clustering algorithms this does not require choosing the number of clusters k in advance because the objective, to minimize the sum of weights of the cut edges, is independent of the number of clusters.]

C. Multivariate Analysis (Complexity increases) :- “what”

a) Multiple regression (considering multiple univariate to analyze the effect of the independent variables on the outcomes)

b) Multivariate regression – where multiple causes and multiple outcomes exists

All the above are still discussing the “what” aspect. When the complexity increases the notion of independent and dependent variables become non-deterministic, since it is difficult to establish given the interactions, potentially including cyclic paths of influence in a network of interactions, amongst the variables. A very simple example in just a simple case is that obesity causes diabetes, but the also converse is true, and we may also suspect that obesity causes type 2 diabetes cause obesity… In such situation what is best as “subject” and what is best as “object” becomes difficult to establish. Existing inference network methods typically assume that the world can be represented by a Directional Acyclic Graph, more like a tree, but the real world is more complex than that that: metabolism, neural pathways, road maps, subway maps, concept maps, are not unidirectional, and they are more interactive, with cyclic routes. Furthermore, discovering the “how” aspect becomes important in the diagnosis of the episodes and to establish correct pathways, while also extracting the severe cases (chronic cases which is a multivariate problem). Indeterminism also creates an ontology that can be probabilistic, not crisp.

Most ACO analytics addresses the above based on the PQRS clinical factors, which are all quantitative. Barely useful for advancing the ACO into solving performance driven or value driven outcomes most of which are qualitative.

D. Neural Net :- “what”

https://www.wolfram.com/language/11/neural-networks/?product=mathematica

The above discussed challenges of analyzing multivariate pushes us into techniques such as Neural Net; which is the next level to Multivariate Regression Statistical Approach…. where multiple regression models are feeding into the next level of clusters, again an array of multiple regression models.

The Neural Net method still remains inadequate in exposing “how” probably the human mind is organized in discerning the health ecosystem for diagnostic purposes, for which “how”, “why”, “when” etc becomes imperative to arrive at accurate diagnosis and target outcomes efficiently. Its learning is “smudged out”. A little more precisely put: it is hard to interrogate a Neural Net because it is far from easy to see what are the weights mixed up in different pooled contributions, or where they come from.

“So we enter Probabilistic Computations which is as such Combinatorial Explosion Problem”.

E. Hyperbolic Dirac Net (Inverse or Dual Bayesian technique): – “how”, “why”, “when” in addition to “what”.

Note:- Beta Release 1.0 only addresses HDN transformation and inference query against the structured data sets and Features A, B and E. However, as a non-packaged solution C and D features can still be explored.

Release 2.0 will deliver full A.I driven reasoning capability MARPLE working against both structured and unstructured data sets. Furthermore, it will be designed to be customized for EBM driven “Point Of Care” and “Care Planning” productized user experience.

The BioIngine.com™offers a comprehensive bio-statistical reasoning experience in the application of the data science as discussed above that blends descriptive and inferential statistical studies.

The BioIngine.com™; is a High Performance Cloud Computing Platformdelivering HealthCare Large-Data Analytics capability derived from an ensemble of bio-statistical computations. The automated bio-statistical reasoning is a combination of “deterministic” and “probabilistic” methods employed against both structured and unstructured large data sets leading into Cognitive Reasoning.

Given the challenge of analyzing against the large data sets both structured (EHR data) and unstructured data; the emerging Healthcare analytics are around above discussed methods D and E; Ingine Inc is unique in the Hyperbolic Dirac Net proposition.

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Q-UEL Toolkit for Medical Decision Making :- Science of Uncertainty and Probabilities

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Quantum Universal Exchange Language

Emergent | Interoperability | Knowledge Mining | Blockchain

Q-UEL

  1. It is a toolkit / framework
  2. Is an Algorithmic Language for constructing Complex System
  3. Results into a Inferential Statistical mechanism suitable for a highly complex system – “Hyperbolic Dirac Net”
  4. Involves an approach that is based on the premise that a Highly Complex System driven by the human social structures continuously strives to achieve a higher order in the entropic journey by continuos discerning the knowledge hidden in the system that is in continuum.
  5. A System in Continuum seeking Higher and Higher Order is a Generative System.
  6. A Generative System; Brings System itself as a Method to achieve Transformation. Similar is the case for National Learning Health System.
  7. A Generative System; as such is based on Distributed Autonomous Agents / Organization; achieving Syndication driven by Self Regulation or Swarming behavior.
  8. Essentially Q-UEL as a toolkit / framework algorithmically addresses interoperability, knowledge mining and blockchain; while driving the Healthcare Eco-system into Generative Transformation achieving higher nd higher orders in the National Learning Health System.
  9. It has capabilities to facilitate medical workflow, continuity of care, medical knowledge extraction and representation from vast large sets of structured and unstructured data, automating bio-statistical reasoning leading into large data driven evidence based medicine, that further leads into clinical decision support system including knowledge management and Artificial Intelligence; and public health and epidemiological analysis.

http://www.himss.org/achieving-national-learning-health-system

GENERATIVE SYSTEM :-

https://ingine.wordpress.com/2013/01/09/generative-transformation-system-is-the-method/

A Large Chaotic System driven by Human Social Structures has two contending ways.

a. Natural Selection – Adaptive – Darwinian – Natural Selection – Survival Of Fittest – Dominance

b. Self Regulation – Generative – Innovation – Diversity – Cambrian Explosion – Unique Peculiarities – Co Existence – Emergent

Accountable Care Organization (ACO) driven by Affordability Care Act transforms the present Healthcare System that is adaptive (competitive) into generative (collaborative / co-ordinated) to achieve inclusive success and partake in the savings achieved. This is a generative systemic response contrasting the functional and competitive response of an adaptive system.

Natural selection seems to have resulted in functional transformation, where adaptive is the mode; does not account for diversity.

Self Regulation – seems like is a systemic outcome due to integrative influence (ecosystem), responding to the system constraints. Accounts for rich diversity.

The observer learns generatively from the system constraints for the type of reflexive response required (Refer – Generative Grammar – Immune System – http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC554270/pdf/emboj00269-0006.pdf)

From the above observation, should the theory in self regulation seem more correct and that adheres to laws of nature, in which generative learning occurs. Then, the assertion is “method” is offered by the system itself. System’s ontology has an implicate knowledge of the processes required for transformation (David Bohm – Implicate Order)

For very large complex system,

System itself is the method – impetus is the “constraint”.

In the video below, the ability for the cells to creatively create the script is discussed which makes the case for self regulated and generative complex system in addition to complex adaptive system.

 

Further Notes on Q-UEL / HDN :-

  1. That brings Quantum Mechanics (QM) machinery to Medical Science.
  2. Is derived from Dirac Notation that helped in defining the framework for describing the QM. The resulting framework or language is Q-UEL and it delivers a mechanism for inferential statistics – “Hyperbolic Dirac Net”
  3. Created from System Dynamics and Systems Thinking Perspective.
  4. It is Systemic in approach; where System is itself the Method.
  5. Engages probabilistic ontology and semantics.
  6. Creates a mathematical framework to advance Inferential Statistics to study highly chaotic complex system.
  7. Is an algorithmic approach that creates Semantic Architecture of the problem or phenomena under study.
  8. The algorithmic approach is a blend of linguistics semantics, artificial intelligence and systems theory.
  9. The algorithm creates the Semantic Architecture defined by Probabilistic Ontology :- representing the Ecosystem Knowledge distribution based on Graph Theory

To make a decision in any domain, first of all the knowledge compendium of the domain or the system knowledge is imperative.

System Riddled with Complexity is generally a Multivariate System, as such creating much uncertainty

A highly complex system being non-deterministic, requires probabilistic approaches to discern, study and model the system.

General Characteristics of Complex System Methods

  • Descriptive statistics are employed to study “WHAT” aspects of the System
  • Inferential Statistics are applied to study “HOW”, “WHEN”, “WHY” and “WHERE” probing both spatial and temporal aspects.
  • In a highly complex system; the causality becomes indeterminable; meaning the correlation or relationships between the independent and dependent variables are not obviously established. Also, they seem to interchange the position. This creates dilemma between :- subject vs object, causes vs outcomes.
  • Approaching a highly complex system, since the priori and posterior are not definable; inferential techniques where hypothesis are fixed before the beginning the study of the system become enviable technique.

Review of Inferential Techniques as the Complexity is Scaled

Step 1:- Simple System (turbulence level:-1)

Frequentist :- simplest classical or traditional statistics; employed treating data random with a steady state hypothesis – system is considered not uncertain (simple system). In Frequentist notions of statistics, probability is dealt as classical measures based only on the idea of counting and proportion. This technique is applied to probability to data, where the data sets are rather small.

Increase complexity: Larger data sets, multivariate, hypothesis model is not established, large variety of variables; each can combine (conditional and joint) in many different ways to produce the effect.

Step 2:- Complex System (turbulence level:-2)

Bayesian :- hypothesis is considered probabilistic, while data is held at steady state. In Bayesian notions of statistics, probability is of the hypothesis for a given sets of data that is fixed. That is, hypothesis is random and data is fixed. The knowledge extracted contains the more subjectivist notions of uncertainty, belief, reliability, or confidence often used in automated inference and decision support systems.

Additionally the hypothesis can be explored only in an acyclic fashion creating Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAG)

Increase the throttle on the complexity: Very large data sets, both structured and unstructured,  Hypothesis random, multiple Hypothesis possible, Anomalies can exist, There are hidden conditions, need arises to discover the “probabilistic ontology” as they represent the system and the behavior within.

Step 3: Highly Chaotic Complex System (turbulence level:-3)

Certainly DAG is now inadequate, since we need to check probabilities as correlations and also causations of the variables, and if they conform to a hypothesis producing pattern, meaning some ontology is discovered which describes the peculiar intrinsic behavior among a specific combinations of the variables to represent a hypothesis condition. And, there are many such possibilities within the system, hence  very chaotic and complex system.

Now the System itself seems probabilistic; regardless of the hypothesis and the data. This demands Multi-Lateral Cognitive approach

Telandic …. “Point – equilibrium – steady state – periodic (oscillatory) – quasiperiodic – Chaotic – and telandic (goal seeking behavior) are examples of behavior here placed in order of increasing complexity”

A Highly Complex System, demands a Dragon Slayer – Hyperbolic Dirac Net (HDN) driven Statistics (BI-directional Bayesian) for extracting the Knowledge from a Chaotic Uncertain System.

BioIngine.com :- High Performance Cloud Computing Platform

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Non-Hypothesis driven Unsupervised Machine Learning Platform delivering Medical Automated Reasoning Programming Language Environment (MARPLE)

Evidence Based Medicine Decision Process is based on PICO

From above link “Using medical evidence to effectively guide medical practice is an important skill for all physicians to learn. The purpose of this article is to understand how to ask and evaluate questions of diagnosis, and then apply this knowledge to the new diagnostic test of CT colonography to demonstrate its applicability. Sackett and colleagues1 have developed a step-wise approach to answering questions of diagnosis:”

Uncertainties in the Healthcare Ecosystem

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3146626/

BioIngine.com Platform

Is High Performance Cloud Computing Platform delivering both probabilistic and deterministic computations; while combining HDN Inferential Statistics and Descriptive Statics.

The bio-statistical reasoning algorithm have been implemented in the Wolfram Language; which is a knowledge based programming unified symbolic language. As such symbolic language has a good synergy in implementing Dirac Notational Algebra.

The Bioingine.com; brings the Quantum Mechanics machinery to Healthcare analytics; delivering a comprehensive data science experience that covers both Patient Health and Public Health analytics driven by a range of bio-statistical methods from descriptive to inferential statistics, leading into evidence driven medical reasoning.

The Bioingine.com transforms the large clinical data sets generated by interoperability architectures, such as in Health Information Exchange (HIE) into semantic lake representing the Health ecosystem that is more amenable to bio-statistical reasoning and knowledge representation. This capability delivers evidence based knowledge needed for Clinical Decision Support System better achieving Clinical Efficacy by helping to reduce medical errors.

Algorithm based on Hyperbolic Dirac Net (HDN)

An HDN is a dualization procedure performed on a given inference net that consists of a pair of split-complex number factorizations of the joint probability and its dual (adjoint, reverse direction of conditionality). Hyperbolic Dirac Net is derived from Dirac Notational Algebra that forms the mechanism to define Quantum Mechanics.

A Hyperbolic Dirac Net (HDN) is a truly Bayesian model and a probabilistic general graph model that includes cause and effect as players of equal importance. It is taken from the mathematics of Nobel Laureate Paul A. M. Dirac that has become standard notation and algebra in physics for some 70 years.  It includes but goes beyond the Bayes Net that is seen as a special and (arguably) usually misleading case. In attune with nature, the HDN does not constrain interactions and may contain cyclic paths in the graphs representing the probabilistic relationships between all things (states, events, observations, measurements etc.).  In the larger picture, HDNs define a probabilistic semantics and so are not confined to conditional relationships, and they can evolve under logical, grammatical, definitional and other relationships. It is also, in its larger context, a model of the nature of natural language and human reasoning based on it that takes account of uncertainty.

Explanation: An HDN is an inference net, but it is also best explained by showing that it stands in sharp contrast to the current notion of an inference net that, for historical reasons, is today often taken as meaning the same thing as a  Bayes Net. “A Bayesian network, Bayes network, belief network, Bayes(ian) model or probabilistic directed acyclic graphical model is a probabilistic graphical model (a type of statistical model) that represents a set of random variables and their conditional dependencies via a directed acyclic graph (DAG). For example, a Bayesian network could represent the probabilistic relationships between diseases and symptoms. Given symptoms, the network can be used to compute the probabilities of the presence of various diseases.”  [https://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Bayesian_ network].  In practice, such nets have little to do with Bayes, nor Bayes’ rule, law, theorem or equation that  allows verification that probabilities used are consistent with each other and all other probabilities that can be derived from data. Most importantly, in reality, all things interact in the manner of a general graph, and a DAG is in general a poor model of reality since it consequently may miss key interactions.

DiracMiner 

Is a machine learning based biostatistical algorithm that transforms Large Data Sets such as Millions of Patient Records  into Semantic Lake as defined by HDN driven computations that is a mix of Numbers theory (Riemann Zeta) and Information Theory (Dual Bayesian or HDN)

The HDN – Semantic Lake, represents the health-ecosystem as captured in Knowledge Representation Store (KRS) consisting of Billions of Tags (Q-UEL Tags).

DiracBuilder

Send an HDN query to KRS to seek HDN probabilistic inference / estimate. The Query for the inference contains the HDN that the user would like to have, and DiracBuilder helps get the best similar dual net by looking at what Billions of QUEL tags and joint probabilities are available.

High Performance Cloud Computing

The Bioingine.com Platform computes (probabilistic computations) against the billions of Q-UEL tags employing extended in-memory processing technique. The creation of the billions of Q-UEL tags and querying against them is combinatorial explosionproblem.

The Bioingine platform working against large clinical data sets or while residing within the large Patient Health Information Exchange (HIE) works in creating opportunity for Clinical Efficacy and also facilitates in the better achievement of “Efficiencies in the Healthcare Management” that ACO seeks.

Our endeavors have resulted in the development of revolutionary Data Science to deliver Health Knowledge by Probabilistic Inference. The solution developed addresses critical areas both scientific and technical, notably the healthcare interoperability challenges of delivering semantically relevant knowledge both at patient health (clinical) and public health level (Accountable Care Organization).

Multivariate Cognitive Inference from Uncertainty

Solving High-dimentional Multivariate Inference involving variables factors excess of factor 4 representing the high-dimentioanlity that characteristics of the healthcare domain.

EBM Diagnostic Risk Factors and Calculating Predictive Odds

Q-UEL tags of form

< A Pfwd:=x |  assoc:=y | B Pbwd:=z >

Say A = disease, B = cause,  drug,  or diagnostic prediction of disease, are designed to imply the following, knowing numbers x, y, and z.

P(A|B) = x

K(A; B) = P(A,B) / (P(A)P(B))   = y

P(BIA) = z

From which we can calculate the following….

P(A) = P(A|B)/K(A;B)

P(B) = P(B|A)/K(A;B)

P( NOT A) = 1 – P(A)

P(NOT B) = 1 – P(B)

P(A, B) = P(A|B)P(B) = P(B|A) P(A)

P(NOT A,  B)= P(B) – P(A B)

P(A, NOT B) = P(A) – P(A B)

P(NOT A, NOT B) = 1 – P(A, B) – P(NOT A, B) – P(A NOT B)

P(NOT A | B)  = 1  – P(A|B)

P(NOT B | A) = 1 –  P(B|A)

P(A | NOT B) =  P(A, NOT B)/P(NOT B)

P(B | NOT A) =  P(NOT A, B)/P(NOT A)

Positive Predictive Value P+ = P(A | B)

Negative Predictive value  P- = P(NOTA | NOT B)

Sensitivity = P(B | A)

Specificity = P(NOT B | NOT A)

Accuracy A =   P(A | B) + P(NOT A | NOT B)

Predictive odds PO = P(A | B) / P(NOT A | B)

Relative Risk RR = Positive likelihood ratio  LR+ =  P(A | B) / P(A | NOT B)

Negative  likelihood ratio  LR- =  P(NOT A | B) /  NOT A | NOT B)

Odds ratio OR = P(A, B)P(NOT A, NOT B)  /  (  P(NOT A,  B)P(A, NOT B) )

Absolute risk reduction ARR =  P(NOT A | B) – P(A | B) (where A is disease and B is drug etc).

Number  Needed to Treat NNT = +1 / ARR if ARR > 0 (giving positive result)

Number  Needed to Harm  NNH = -1 / ARR  if ARR > 0 (giving positive result)

Example:-

BP = blood pressure (high)

This case is very similar, because high BP and diabetes are each comorbidities with high BMI and hence to some extent with each other.  Consequently we just substitute diabetes by BP throughout.

(0) We can in f act test the strength of the above  with the following RR, which in effect reads as “What is the relative risk of needing to take BP medication if you are diabetic as opposed to not diabetic?

<‘Taking BP  medication’:=’1’  |  ‘Taking diabetes medication’:= ‘1’>

/<‘Taking BP  medication’:=’1’  | ‘Taking diabetes medication’:= ‘0’>

The following predictive odds  PO make sense and are useful here:-

<‘Taking BP  medication’:=’1’  |  ‘BMI’:= ’50-59’  >

/<‘Taking BP  medication’:=’0’  |  ‘BMI’:= ’50-59’  >

and (separately entered)

<‘Taking diabets medication’:=’1’  |  ‘BMI’:= ’50-59’  >

/<‘Taking diabetes  medication’:=’0’  |  ‘BMI’:= ’50-59’  >

And the odds ratio OR would be a good measure here (as it works in both directions). Note Pfwd = Pbw theoretically for an odds ratio.

<‘Taking BP  medication’:=’1’  | ‘Taking diabetes medication’:= ‘1’>

<‘Taking BP  medication’:=’0’  | ‘Taking diabetes medication’:= ‘0’>

/<‘Taking BP  medication’:=’1’  | ‘Taking diabetes medication’:= ‘0’>

/<‘Taking BP  medication’:=’0’  | ‘Taking diabetes medication’:= ‘1’>

Value Added Partners Invited – BioIngine.com; Cognitive Computing Platform democratizing Medical Knowledge at Point of Care.

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Commoditization of Data Science and unleashing Democratized Medical Knowledge.

The mission of Ingine Inc as a startup is to bring advancement in data science as applicable to medical knowledge extraction from large data sets.

Screenshot 2016-06-24 11.29.39

Particularly following are the differentiators owing to which Ingine Inc is a candidate startup in hope of advancing science in difficult to solve areas; driven by decades of research by Dr. Barry Robson.

  1. Introducing Hyperbolic Dirac Net (HDN); a machinery created borrowing from Quantum Mechanics to advance data mining and deep learning beyond what Bayesian could deliver; against the backdrop of very large data sets riddled with uncertainty and high-dimentionality. Most importantly, HDN based non-hypothesis approach allows us to create a learning system workbench that is also amenable to research and discovery related efforts based on deep learning techniques.
  2. Create large data driven evidence based medicine (EBM). This means creating scientifically curated medical knowledge having gone through a process akin to systematic review.
  3. Integrate Patient centric studies with epidemiological studies to achieve a comprehensive framework to advance integrated large data driven bio-statistical approach which addresses both systemic and also functional concerns. This means blending both descriptive and inferential (HDN) statistical approaches.
  4. Introduce a comprehensive notational and symbolic programming framework that allows us to create a unified mathematical framework to deliver both probabilistic and deterministic methods of reasoning which allows us to create varieties of cognitive experience from large sets of data riddled with uncertainty.
  5. Use all of the above in creating a Point of Care platform experience that delivers EBM in a PICO format as followed by the industry as a gold standard.

While PICO is employed as a framework to create EBM driven diagnosis process as a consequence of both qualitative and quantitative methods that better achieves systematic review; medical exam setting is used as a specification to define the template for enacting the EBM process. This is based on the caveat that for a system to qualify as an expert system in the medical area, it should also be able to pass medical exams based on the knowledge the learning system has acquired that is scientifically curated by both automated machine learning and manual intervention efforts.

As part of the overall architecture, that employs some ingenious design techniques such as non-predicated, non -hypothesis driven and schema-less design; semantic lake a tag driven knowledge repository is created from which the cognitive experience is created employing inferential statistics. Furthermore the capability can be delivered as a cloud computing platform where parallelization, in-memmory processing, high performance computing (HPC) and elastic scaling are addressed.

Bioingine :- Multivariate Cognitive Computing Platform – Distributed Concurrent Computing by Dockerized Microservices

HDN_Cognitive_Computing

Employ of Dockerized Apps Opens a Vistas of Possibilities with Hadoop Architecture. Where, the Hadoop’s traditional data management architecture is extended beyond data processing and management into Distributed Concurrent Computing.

 

Data Management (Storage, Security,  MapReduce based Pre-processing) and Data Science (Algorithms) Decoupled.

Microservices driven Concurrent Computing :- Complex Distributed Architecture made Affordable

Conceptual View of Yarn driven Dockerized Session Management of  Multiple Hypothesis over Semantic Lake

Notes on HDN (Advanced Bayesian), Clinical Semantic Data Lake and Deep Learning / Knowledge Mining and Inference 

 

 

Hyperbolic Dirac Net (HDN) + Data Mining to Map Clinical Pathways (The Tacit Knowledge)

 

Bioingine.com employs algorithmic approach based on Hyperbolic Dirac Net that allows inference nets that are a general graph (GC), including cyclic paths, thus surpassing the limitation in the Bayes Net that is traditionally a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) by definition.

The Bioingine.com approach thus more fundamentally reflects the nature of probabilistic knowledge in the real world, which has the potential for taking account of the interaction between all things without limitation, and ironically this more explicitly makes use of Bayes rule far more than does a Bayes Net.

It also allows more elaborate relationships than mere conditional dependencies, as a probabilistic semantics analogous to natural human language but with a more detailed sense of probability. To identify the things and their relationships that are important and provide the required probabilities, the Bioingine.com scouts the large complex data of both structured and also information of unstructured textual character.

It treats initial raw extracted knowledge rather in the manner of potentially erroneous or ambiguous prior knowledge, and validated and curated knowledge as posterior knowledge, and enables the refinement of knowledge extracted from authoritative scientific texts into an intuitive canonical “deep structure” mental-algebraic form that the Bioingine.com can more readily manipulate.

Discussion on employing HDN to map Clinical Pathways (The Tacit Knowledge)

Screenshot 2016-01-05 21.04.17

In the below referenced articles on the employ of Bayesian Net to model Clinical Pathways as probabilistic inference net, replace Bayesian Net to achieve stress tested Hyperbolic Dirac Net (HDN) which is a non-acyclic Bayesian resolving both correlation and causation in both the direction; etymology –> outcomes and outcomes –> etymology

1. Elements of Q-UEL 

Q-UEL is based on the Dirac Notation and associated algebra The notation was introduced into later editions of Dirac’s book to facilitate understanding and use of quantum mechanics (QM) and it has been a standard notation in physics and theoretical chemistry since the 1940s

a) Dirac Notation

In the early days of quantum theory, P. A. M. (Paul Adrian Maurice) Dirac created a powerful and concise formalism for it which is now referred to as Dirac notation or bra-ket (bracket ) notation

<bra vector exprn* | operator exprn* | ket vector exprn*> 

[ exprn* is expression]

It  is an  algebra for observations and measurements, and probabilistic inference from  them

 QM is a system for representing observations and measurements, and drawing probabilistic inference from them.

In Dirac’s notation what is known is put in a ket, “|>” . So, for example, “|p >” expresses the fact that a particle has momentum p. It could also be more explicit: |p = 2> , the particle has momentum equal to 2; | x = 1.23 , the particle has position 1.23 |Ψ > represents a system in the state and is therefore called the state vector. 

The ket |> can also be interpreted as the initial state in some transition or event.

The bra <| represents the final state or the language in which you wish to express the content of the ket

Hyperbolic Dirac Net, has ket |> as row vector, and bra <| as column vector

b) hh = +1 Imaginary Number

QM is a system for representing observations and measurements, and drawing probabilistic inference from them. The Q in Q-UEL refers to QM, but a simple mathematical transformation of QM gives classical everyday behavior. Q-UEL inherits the machinery of QM by replacing the more familiar imaginary number i (such that ii = -1), responsible for QM as wave mechanics, by the hyperbolic imaginary number h (such that hh=+1). Hence our inference net in general is called the Hyperbolic Dirac Net (HDN)

In probability theory A, B, C, etc. represent things, states, events, observations, measurements, qualities etc. In this paper we mean medical factors, including demographic factors such as age and clinical factors such as systolic blood pressure value or history of diabetes.

They can also stand for expressions containing many factors, so note that by e.g.

P(A|B) we would usually mean that it also applies to, say, P(A, B | C, D, E). In text, P(A,B, C,…) with ellipsis ‘…’ means all combinatorial possibilities, P(A), P(B), P(A, C), P(B, D, H) etc.

2) Employing Q-UEL  preliminary inference net as the query can be created.

“Will my female patient age 50-59 taking diabetes medication and having a body mass index of 30-39 have very high cholesterol if the systolic BP is 130-139 mmHg and HDL is 50-59 mg/dL and non-HDL is 120-129 mg/dL?”.

This forms a preliminary inference net as the query, which may be refined and to which probabilities must be assigned

The real answers of interest here are not qualitative statements, but the final probabilities. The protocols involved map to what data miners often seem to see as two main options in mining, although we see them as the two ends of a continuum.

Method (A) may be recognized as Unsupervised (or unrestricted) data mining and post-filtering, and is the method mainly used here. In this approach

we (1) mine data (“observe”),(2) compute a very large number of the more significant probabilities and render them as tags and maintained as Knowledge Representative Store (KRS) or Semantic Lake (“evaluate”), (3) use a propose inference net as a query to search amongst the probabilities represented by those tags, but only looking for those relevant to complete the net and assign probabilities to it, assessing what is available, and seeing what can be substituted (“interpret”), and (4) compute the overall probability of the final inference net in order to make a decision (“decide”). Unsupervised data mining is preferred because it generates many tags for an SW-like approach, and may uncover new unexpected relationships that could be included in the net.

Method (B) uses supervised (or restricted) data mining and prefiltering. Data mining considers only what appears in the net. The down-stream user interested in inference always accesses the raw database, while in (A) he or she may never see it.

The advantage of (B) is that mining is far less computationally demanding both in terms of processing and memory. Useful to computing HDN for a specified Hypothesis.

The Popular Bayes Net BN Compared with our Hyperbolic Dirac Net HDN.

Each probabilities of any kind can also be manipulated for inference in a variety of ways, according to philosophy (which is a matter of concern ). The BN is probably the most popular method, perhaps because it does seem to be based on traditional, conservative, principles of probability. However, the BN is traditionally (and, strictly speaking, by definition) confined to a probability network that is a directed acyclic graph (DAG).

In general, reversibility, cyclic paths and feedback abound in the real world, and we need probabilistic knowledge networks that are general graphs, or even more diffuse fields of influence, not DAGs. In our response as the Hyperbolic Dirac Net (HDN), “Dirac” relates to use of Paul A. M. Dirac’s view of quantum mechanics (QM).

QM is not only a standard system for representing probabilistic observation and inference from it in physics, but also it manages and even promotes concepts like reversibility and cycles. The significance of “hyperbolic” is that it relates to a particular type of imaginary number rediscovered by Dirac. Dirac notation entities, Q-UEL tags, and the analogous building blocks of an HDN all have complex probabilities better described as probability amplitudes. This means that they have the form x + jy where x and y are real numbers and j is an imaginary number, though they can also be vectors or matrices with such forms as elements.

Q-UEL is seen as a Lorentz rotation i → h of QM as wave mechanics. The imaginary number involved is now no longer the familiar i such that ii = -1, but the hyperbolic imaginary number, called h in Q-UEL, such that hh = +1.

This renders the HDN to behave classically. A basic HDN is an h-complex BN.

Both BN and basic HDN may use Predictive Odds in which conditional probabilities (or the HDN’s comparable h-complex notions) are replaced by ratios of these.

Discussions on Employing Bayesian Net to Model Clinical Pathways (Replace BN by HDN to achieve Hyperbolic BN)

Development of a Clinical Pathways Analysis System with Adaptive Bayesian Nets and Data Mining Techniques 

D. KOPEC*, G. SHAGAS*, D. REINHARTH**, S. TAMANG

 

Pathway analysis of high-throughput biological data within a Bayesian network framework

Senol IsciCengizhan OzturkJon Jones and Hasan H. Otu

Are Standardized Clinical Pathways Stymying Drug Innovation?

HDN :- Need for Agile Clinical Pathways that do not impede Drug Innovation

Oncologists Say Clinical Pathways Are Too Confining

Creating fixed plans for treating common malignancies promises to make the work of nurses and other staff more predictable and practiced, increasing efficiency and reducing errors that could lead to poor outcomes and hospitalization. For payers, pathways also gave them another way to insert awareness of costs directly into the examining room.

“The way the pathways are constructed does promote consideration of value-driven practice, which is to say that the pathways vendors all take into account cost of care, but only after considering efficacy and toxicity,” said Michael Kolodziej, MD, national medical director of oncology solutions at Aetna, and a former medical director at US Oncology. “So there is an element here of reduction of cost of care, by trying to encourage physicians to consider the relative value of various treatment options. This has now become the mantra in oncology.”

Studies found that using pathways can indeed cut costs substantially without hurting outcomes.

Probabilistic Modeling, Predictive Analytics & Intelligent Design from Multiple Medical Knowledge Sources

Bioingine.com; Probabilistic Modeling and Predictive Analytics Platform for A.I driven Deep Learning to discover Pathways from Clinical Data to Suggested Ontology for Pharmacogenomics; achieving Personalization and Driving Precision Medicine.

Data Integration in the Life Sciences: 11th International Conference, DILS 2015, Los Angeles, CA, USA, July 9-10, 2015, Proceedings

The Feature Diagram from the book above:-

Pharmacogenomics_pathway

Pharmacogenomic knowledge representation, reasoning and genome-based clinical decision support based on OWL 2 DL ontologies

Combining Multiple knowledge Sources and also Ontologies:-

[Suggested Ontologies for Pharmacogenomics converging to help find a Pathway]
  • Patient Data (HL7, C-CDA)
  • Gene Ontology
  • ChEBI Ontology

Integration of Knowledge for Personalized Medicine:- Pharmacogenomics case-study

Looking Forward: The Case for Intelligent Design (and Infrastructure) in Life Science Biologics R&D Sponsored by: Dassault Systèmes; Alan S. Louie, Ph.D. January 2015

http://gate250.com/tc2/IDC%20Biologics%20White%20Paper.pdf